SIDDHA (Tamil Medicine)
Tamil Medical Systems 10000 - 4400 B.C.E first originated in the times mentions T.V. campacivam pillai. (Sambasivam Pillai, Tamil-English Dictionary of Medicine, 3: 2089.)
Only one of the first medical system in the world. So its called mother of of all medical system.
Its origin is also traced to mythological sources belonging to the Shaiva tradition. According to the tradition, Lord Shiva conveyed the knowledge of medicine to his wife Parvati. The knowledge was passed from her to Nandi and finally it was given to the Siddhas. 18 Siddhars (the person who has achieved some extra-ordinary powers): Nandi, Agasthiyar, Thirumular, Punnakkeesar, Pulasthiyar, Poonaikannar, Idaikkadar, Bogar, Pulikai isar, Karuvurar, Konkanavar, Kalangi, Sattainathar, Azhuganni, Agappai, Pumbatti, Theraiyar and Kudhambai, but the Agasthiyar (Agastya) was the topmost .
Generally the basic concepts of the Siddha medicine are almost similar to Ayurveda. The only difference appears to be that the Siddha medicine recognizes predominance of vatham, pitham and kapam in childhood, adulthood and old age respectively, whereas in Ayurveda it is totally reversed: kapam is dominant in childhood, vatham in old age and pitham in adults.
According to the Siddha medicine various psychological and physiological functions of the body are attributed to the combination of seven elements: first is saram (plasma) responsible for growth, development and nourishment; second is cheneer (blood) responsible for nourishing muscles, imparting colour and improving intellect; the third is ooun (muscle) responsible for shape of the body; fourth is kollzuppu (fatty tissue) responsible for oil balance and lubricating joints; fifth is enbu (bone) responsible for body structure and posture and movement; sixth is moolai (nerve) responsible for strength; and the last is sukila (semen) responsible for reproduction. Like in Ayurveda, in Siddha medicine also the physiological components of the human beings are classified as Vatha (air), Pitha (fire) and Kapha (earth and water).
When the normal equilibrium of three humors (vatha, pitha and kapha) is disturbed, disease is caused. The factors, which affect this equilibrium are environment, climatic conditions, diet, physical activities, and stress. Under normal conditions, the ratio between these three humors (vatha, pitha and kapha) is 4:2:1 respectively.
According to the Siddha medicine system diet and life style play a major role not only in health but also in curing diseases. This concept of the Siddha medicine is termed as pathya and apathya, which is essentially a list of do's and dont's.
In diagnosis, examination of eight items is required which is commonly known as astasthana-pariksa. These are:
1. na (tongue): black in vatha, yellow or red in pitha, white in kapha, ulcerated in anaemia.
2. varna (colour): dark in vatha, yellow or red in pitha, pale in kapha;
3. svara (voice): normal in vatha, high pitched in pitha, low pitched in kapha, slurred in alcoholism.
4. kan (eyes): muddy conjunctiva, yellowish or red in pitha, pale in kapha.
5. sparisam (touch): dry in vatha, warm in pitha, chill in kapha, sweating in different parts of the body.
6. mala (stool): black stools indicate vatha, yellow pitha, pale in kapha, dark red in ulcer and shiny in terminal illness.
7. neer (urine): early morning urine is examined; straw colour indicates indigestion, reddish yellow excessive heat, rose in blood pressure, saffron colour in jaundice and looks like meat washed water in renal disease.
8. nadi (pulse): the confirmatory method recorded on the radial artery.
In Siddha medicine the use of metals and minerals are more predominant in comparison to other Indian traditional medicine systems. In the usage of metals, minerals and other chemicals, this system was far more advanced than Ayurveda. Siddhar Nagarjuna introduced the use of mercury and its compounds to the Ayurvedic system in later periods. The use of more metals and chemicals was justified by the fact that to preserve the body from decomposing materials that do not decompose easily should be used. The other reason perhaps was that the south Indian rivers were not perennial and herbs were not available all through the year.
The drugs used by the Siddhars could be classified into three groups: thavaram (herbal product), thathu (inorganic substances) and jangamam (animal products). The thathu drugs are further classified as uppu (water soluble inorganic substances or drugs that give out vapour when put into fire), pashanam (drugs not dissolved in water but emit vapour when fired), uparasam (similar to pashanam but differ in action), loham (not dissolved in water but melt when fired), rasam (drugs which are soft) and ghandhagam (drugs which are insoluble in water, like sulphor).
In herbal drugs, the Siddhars not only used herbs, which grow in the surrounding areas, but also herbs that grow in high altitudes of Himalayas. It is noteworthy that Siddhar Korakkar was the first to introduce Cannabis as a medicine; he used it as a powerful painkiller. They also used animal products as medicine, for example in mental diseases, peranda bhasma is used which is made of human skull bones and the skulls of dogs.
The drugs used in Siddha medicine were classified on the basis of five properties: suvai (taste), guna (character), veerya (potency), pirivu (class) and mahimai (action).
According to their mode of application the Siddha medicine could be categorized into two classes: (1) internal medicine and (2) external medicine.
According to their pharmaceutical preparations, Siddha medicine could be categorized into:
Mercury is used in five forms such as rasam (mercury), lingam (red sulphide of mercury), veram (mercury perchloride), pooram (mercury subchloride) and rasa-chinduram (red oxide of mercury). They are known as panchasutha.
In addition to drugs, pranayama and other disciplines of yoga are necessary for good health and longevity.
It is not ayurveda called AYULVEDA(LIFE OF KNOWGE) . All AYULVEDA (SIDDHA) books are translated to singala and Sanskrit . these taranslated books are call ayurveda. Generally the basic concepts of the Siddha medicine are similar to Ayurveda.The only difference appears to be that the siddha medicine recognizes predominance of Vaadham, Pitham and Kabam in childhood, adulthood and old age, respectively, whereas in Ayurveda, it is totally reversed: Kabam is dominant in childhood, Vaatham in old age and Pitham in adults.
- Vaidiyar P.RAJAN
Naturopathic doctors are guided by six fundamental healing principles: